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Quantum confined two-dimensional electron/hole gas switching by facet orientation of perovskite oxides

Zhou, Fei, Liu, Yong, Lai, Zhonghong, Liao, Mingqing, Zhou, Yi, Huang, Yudong, Zhu, Jingchuan
RSC advances 2018 v.8 no.37 pp. 20477-20482
electrons, energy, oxides
The Polar discontinuity at heterointerface and the bare surface reconstructs the electronic phase of perovskite oxides. This gives rise to confined free electrons which intrinsically transit material from band insulator to metal. However, the insulator–metal transition induced by free holes has not been investigated so far due to the challenge in obtaining free hole state in oxides. Here, we propose a simple method whereby free holes can be obtained via polar facet reorientation. In the high polarity case, free holes can be supported by the lift up of O 2p subbands, which split into three independent subbands (one heavy hole subband and two light hole subbands) due to strong quantum confinement. Results show that both of the free electron and hole states are confined in a two dimensional quantum well, subjecting to the confined energy (E − EF) and occupied density of states around the Fermi level, indicating a finite thickness for preserving the metal states.