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Size controlled green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Coffea arabica seed extract and their catalytic performance in 4-nitrophenol reduction

Bogireddy, N. K. R., Pal, U., Gomez, L. Martinez, Agarwal, V.
RSC advances 2018 v.8 no.44 pp. 24819-24826
Coffea arabica, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, ambient temperature, boiling point, borohydrides, catalytic activity, crystal structure, electron microscopy, gold, ions, nanogold, nanoparticles, nitroaromatic compounds, p-nitrophenol, pH, reducing agents, seed extracts, solar drying, toxicity
Well crystalline gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different sizes were fabricated using sundried Coffea arabica seed (CAS) extract at room temperature by controlling the pH of the green extract. The size, shape and crystallinity of the nanoparticles have been studied using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The presence of phenolic groups (revealed through FT-IR studies) from the CAS extract are responsible both for the reduction of Au ions and stabilization of the formed AuNPs. The efficiency of the CAS extract mediated green synthesis technique for the production of AuNPs has been compared to the conventional chemical Turkevich technique, which not only uses a toxic reductant such as NaBH₄, but also operates around the boiling point of water. It has been observed that the CAS extract mediated synthesis process produces relatively bigger AuNPs at similar pH values of the reaction mixture in comparison to the AuNPs produced in the Turkevich process. Although the AuNPs synthesized using CAS extract are relatively larger and polydisperse in nature, their catalytic efficiencies for the degradation of an aromatic nitro compound (4-nitrophenol) are found to be comparable to the chemically fabricated AuNPs. Probable mechanisms associated with the formation of AuNPs and their size control in the CAS extract mediated green synthesis process have been discussed.