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A simple synthesis of nanoporous Sb/C with high Sb content and dispersity as an advanced anode for sodium ion batteries

Yuan, Yating, Jan, Safeer, Wang, Zhiyong, Jin, Xianbo
Journal of materials chemistry 2018 v.6 no.14 pp. 5555-5559
anodes, antimony, batteries, calcium carbide, carbon, chemistry, energy, nanopores, porosity, sodium
Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted increasing attention for large-scale energy storage. Among all anodes for SIBs, antimony (Sb) is one of the most attractive ones, but it suffers from a rapid capacity fading because of about 290% volume change upon sodiation/desodiation. Here a facile bottom-up strategy has been developed to prepare nanoporous Sb/C with high Sb content and dispersity via a ball-milling assisted solid state reaction between Sb₂O₃ and CaC₂. The simultaneous and stoichiometric generation of Sb and C facilitates a high dispersion of Sb in, theoretically, 23 wt% carbon. Feeding excess CaC₂ can adjust the porosity of the composite, and tailor Sb particles from crystalline (10–20 nm in size) to amorphous (at the subnanometer scale). The synthesized amorphous Sb/C composite exhibits an unprecedented performance for sodium storage. It delivers a high reversible capacity of 480 mA h g⁻¹ at 0.1 A g⁻¹, 403 mA h g⁻¹ after 1000 cycles at 1.0 A g⁻¹, and 283 mA h g⁻¹ after 3000 cycles at 5.0 A g⁻¹. This study may provide a basis for developing high-capacity and long-cycle-life SIBs for practical applications.