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A simple synthesis of nanoporous Sb/C with high Sb content and dispersity as an advanced anode for sodium ion batteries
- Yuan, Yating, Jan, Safeer, Wang, Zhiyong, Jin, Xianbo
- Journal of materials chemistry 2018 v.6 no.14 pp. 5555-5559
- anodes, antimony, batteries, calcium carbide, carbon, chemistry, energy, nanopores, porosity, sodium
- Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted increasing attention for large-scale energy storage. Among all anodes for SIBs, antimony (Sb) is one of the most attractive ones, but it suffers from a rapid capacity fading because of about 290% volume change upon sodiation/desodiation. Here a facile bottom-up strategy has been developed to prepare nanoporous Sb/C with high Sb content and dispersity via a ball-milling assisted solid state reaction between Sb₂O₃ and CaC₂. The simultaneous and stoichiometric generation of Sb and C facilitates a high dispersion of Sb in, theoretically, 23 wt% carbon. Feeding excess CaC₂ can adjust the porosity of the composite, and tailor Sb particles from crystalline (10–20 nm in size) to amorphous (at the subnanometer scale). The synthesized amorphous Sb/C composite exhibits an unprecedented performance for sodium storage. It delivers a high reversible capacity of 480 mA h g⁻¹ at 0.1 A g⁻¹, 403 mA h g⁻¹ after 1000 cycles at 1.0 A g⁻¹, and 283 mA h g⁻¹ after 3000 cycles at 5.0 A g⁻¹. This study may provide a basis for developing high-capacity and long-cycle-life SIBs for practical applications.