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Bioavailability and risk estimation of heavy metal(loid)s in chromated copper arsenate treated timber after remediation for utilisation as garden materials
- Liu, Yanju, Du, Jianhua, Dong, Zhaomin, Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur, Gao, Yongchao, Yan, Kaihong, Naidu, Ravi
- Chemosphere 2019 v.216 pp. 757-765
- Spinacia oleracea, arsenic, bioavailability, chromated copper arsenate, chromium, copper, gardens, health effects assessments, heavy metals, human health, humans, leaching, leaves, mulches, remediation, risk, risk estimate, roots, soil, spinach, toxicity, wastes, Australia
- There is increasing concern about the use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated timber due to the possible leaching of toxic metals or metalloids. CCA-treated timber waste are currently stockpiled across Australia with limited information about their risks to the environment or human health. In this study, the treatment and utilisation of CCA-treated timber waste as garden mulch, garden retaining walls, and soil additive were investigated. Iron materials were used as immobilising agents. The bioavailability of Cr, Cu and As to Spinacia oleracea from CCA-treated timber, before and after treatment, was determined in the context of human health risk assessment. The results showed that the iron-based treatments resulted in significant decreases in the concentrations of Cu and As in spinach grown in CCA-treated timber in soil. Analyses of CCA derived Cu and As in spinach showed that they accumulated in the roots rather than in the leaves. The risks of toxicity to humans varied for different utilisation scenarios and the immobilisation amendments were shown to reduce carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. The information obtained in this study can inform development of utilisation options for CCA-treated timber wastes.