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Identification and interaction of multiple genes resulting in DDT resistance in the 91-R strain of Drosophila melanogaster by RNAi approaches

Kim, Ju Hyeon, Moreau, Joseph A., Zina, Jake M., Mazgaeen, Lalita, Yoon, Kyong Sup, Pittendrigh, Barry R., Clark, J. Marshall
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2018 v.151 pp. 90-99
ABC transporters, Culicidae, Drosophila melanogaster, RNA interference, World Health Organization, cytochrome P-450, enzymes, excretion, genes, genetic engineering, genetically modified organisms, insecticide resistance, malaria, models, mosquito control, resistance mechanisms
4,4′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been re-recommended by the World Health Organization for malaria mosquito control. Previous DDT use has resulted in resistance, and with continued use resistance will likely increase in terms of level and extent. Drosophila melanogaster is a model dipteran with a well annotated genome allowing both forward and reverse genetic manipulation, numerous studies done on insecticide resistance mechanisms, and is related to malaria mosquitoes allowing for extrapolation. The 91-R strain of D. melanogaster is highly resistant to DDT (>1500-fold) and recently, reduced penetration, increased detoxification, and direct excretion have been identified as resistance mechanisms. Their interactions, however, remain unclear. Use of Gal4/UAS-RNAi transgenic lines of D. melanogaster allowed for the targeted knockdown of genes putatively involved in DDT resistance and has identified the role of several cuticular proteins (Cyp4g1 and Lcp1), cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (Cyp6g1 and Cyp12d1), and ATP binding cassette transporters (Mdr50, Mdr65, and Mrp1) involved in decreased sensitivity to DDT. These above findings have been further validated in 91-R flies using a nanoparticle-enhanced RNAi strategy, directly implication these genes in DDT resistance in 91-R flies.