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Observations of particulate matter, NO2, SO2, O3, H2S and selected VOCs at a semi-urban environment in the Amazon region

Paralovo, Sarah L., Barbosa, Cybelli G.G., Carneiro, Isabela P.S., Kurzlop, Priscila, Borillo, Guilherme C., Schiochet, Maria Fernanda C., Godoi, Ana Flavia L., Yamamoto, Carlos I., de Souza, Rodrigo A.F., Andreoli, Rita V., Ribeiro, Igor O., Manzi, Antonio O., Kourtchev, Ivan, Bustillos, Jose Oscar V., Martin, Scot T., Godoi, Ricardo H.M.
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.650 pp. 996-1006
BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), air quality, ammonium, benzene, biomass, burning, dry season, emissions, ethylbenzene, forest fires, forests, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulates, pollutants, potassium, spatial variation, sulfur dioxide, time series analysis, toluene, volatile organic compounds, wet season, xylene, Amazonia
This research aims to assess air quality in a transitional location between city and forest in the Amazon region. Located downwind of the Manaus metropolitan region, this study is part of the large-scale experiment GoAmazon2014/5. Based on their pollutant potential, inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-, orto-, para-xylene (BTEX) were selected for analysis. Sampling took place during the wet season (March–April 2014) and dry season (August–October 2014). The number of forest fires in the surroundings was higher during the dry wet season. Results show significant increase during the dry season in mass concentration (wet: <0.01–10 μg m−3; dry: 9.8–69 μg m−3), NH4+ soluble content (wet: 13–125 μg m−3; dry: 86–323 μg m−3) and K+ soluble content (wet: 11–168 μg m−3; dry 60–356 μg m−3) of the PM2.5, and O3 levels (wet: 1.4–14 μg m−3; dry: 1.0–40 μg m−3), indicating influence of biomass burning emissions. BTEX concentrations were low in both periods, but also increased during the dry season. A weak correlation in the time series of the organic and inorganic gaseous pollutants indicates a combination of different sources in both seasons and NO2 results suggest a spatial heterogeneity in gaseous pollutants levels beyond initial expectations.