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The accumulation dynamics, elimination and risk assessment of paralytic shellfish toxins in fish from a water supply reservoir

Calado, Sabrina Loise de Morais, Santos, Gustavo Souza, Wojciechowski, Juliana, Magalhães, Valéria Freitas de, Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.651 pp. 3222-3229
Cyanobacteria, chemical analysis, children, feces, fish, human health, monitoring, muscles, neurons, neurotoxins, phytoplankton, risk, saxitoxins, sodium channels, surface water, synaptic transmission, toxicity, water reservoirs, water supply
Paralytic shellfish Toxins (PSTs) or saxitoxins are neurotoxins that block the neural transmission by binding to the voltage-gated sodium channels in the nerve cells. There are >50 analogues described, which could be biotransformed into a molecular form of greater or lesser toxicity. The Alagados Reservoir is used for water supply, and persistent cyanobacterial blooms as well as PSTs concentrations have been found in this water body since 2002. The aims of this study were to quantify the concentrations of PSTs in the water and fish samples from the Alagados Reservoir. In addition, we evaluated the elimination of PSTs for 90 days in fish and estimated the potential risk to human health. Water and fish samples were collected from the reservoir. For the water samples the phytoplankton and chemical analyses were carried out. Fish were divided into two sample times: Field Samples (FS) and Elimination Experiment Samples (EES), which were maintained for 90 days in filtered and dechlorinated water. For chemical analysis, the muscles of FS were collected on the fish sampling day and the muscles and feces of EES were collected at 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days. PSTs concentrations were present in water and fish samples, and they were estimated as a potential risk to humans; mainly for children. In addition, toxins were accumulated, biotransformed to other analogues and excreted by the fish. However, after 90 days, the toxins were still present in the water and fish muscle. Therefore, PSTs can remain for a long period in water, and fish can be a carrier of these neurotoxins. New approaches of monitoring and management are necessary in the actual global context of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.