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Comprehensive toxicological study over 160 processing factors of pesticides in selected fruit and vegetables after water, mechanical and thermal processing treatments and their application to human health risk assessment

Jankowska, Magdalena, Łozowicka, Bożena, Kaczyński, Piotr
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.652 pp. 1156-1167
acetamiprid, active ingredients, acute dietary exposure, adults, azoxystrobin, black currants, boscalid, broccoli, children, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, cyprodinil, databases, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, folpet, food intake, health effects assessments, heat treatment, human health, iprodione, lambda-cyhalothrin, mathematical models, metalaxyl, propargite, pyraclostrobin, risk, strawberries, temperature, tetraconazole, thiram, tomatoes, trifloxystrobin
The challenge of the present comprehensive toxicological study was to evaluate water, mechanical and thermal processing factors (PFs) of twenty four pesticides (acetamiprid, alpha‑cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, boscalid, bupyrimate, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cyprodinil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fenazaquin, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, folpet, iprodione, lambda‑cyhlothrin, metalaxyl, pirymicarb, propargite, pyraclostrobin, tetraconazole, tiophanate methyl, thiram, trifloxystrobin) in different fruit and vegetables and estimate health risk for adults and children. The water (PF = 0,09–0,94), mechanical (PF = 0,13–0,32) and thermal (PF = 0,02–0,57) technology significantly or completely reduced concentrations of twenty one active substances in broccoli, tomatoes, strawberries and black currants. Pyrethroid insecticides (alpha‑cypermethrin, deltamethrin and lambda‑cyhalothrin) exhibited PF above one in berries influenced by high temperatures. Comprehensive processing factor database technology/pesticide/matrix (over 160 PFs) for 24 pesticides in selected fruit and vegetable species after different processing treatments was created. This paper for the first time compares health risk assessments of acute and chronic of two subpopulations of adults and the most critical group of small children using two mathematical models, without (I) and with including (II) calculated PF values. More realistic estimation of the dietary intakes of the pesticides was achieved using PFs. The hazard quotients (HQs) estimated from chronic and acute dietary exposure (Model l) were above 20% and after intake correction (Model II) were reduced to HQs = 11.5% after water, 3% mechanical and 9.5% thermal treatment.