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Molecular and Functional Diversity of RNA Editing in Plant Mitochondria

Tang, Wei, Luo, Caroline
Molecular biotechnology 2018 v.60 no.12 pp. 935-945
Arabidopsis, RNA editing, RNA splicing, abiotic stress, amino acids, animals, biochemical pathways, chloroplasts, crops, flowering, functional diversity, genes, messenger RNA, mitochondria, nucleotides, proteins, stress tolerance
RNA editing is a fundamental biochemical process relating to the modification of nucleotides in messenger RNAs of functional genes in cells. RNA editing leads to re-establishment of conserved amino acid residues for functional proteins in nuclei, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. Identification of RNA editing factors that contributes to target site recognition increases our understanding of RNA editing mechanisms. Significant progress has been made in recent years in RNA editing studies for both animal and plant cells. RNA editing in nuclei and mitochondria of animal cells and in chloroplast of plant cells has been extensively documented and reviewed. RNA editing has been also extensively documented on plant mitochondria. However, functional diversity of RNA editing factors in plant mitochondria is not overviewed. Here, we review the biological significance of RNA editing, recent progress on the molecular mechanisms of RNA editing process, and function diversity of editing factors in plant mitochondrial research. We will focus on: (1) pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in Arabidopsis and in crop plants; (2) the progress of RNA editing process in plant mitochondria; (3) RNA editing-related RNA splicing; (4) RNA editing associated flower development; (5) RNA editing modulated male sterile; (6) RNA editing-regulated cell signaling; and (7) RNA editing involving abiotic stress. Advances described in this review will be valuable in expanding our understanding in RNA editing. The diverse functions of RNA editing in plant mitochondria will shed light on the investigation of molecular mechanisms that underlies plant development and abiotic stress tolerance.