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Genetic Diversity of Brazilian Bovine Pestiviruses Detected Between 1995 and 2014

S. Silveira, M. N. Weber, A. C. S. Mósena, M. S. da Silva, A. F. Streck, C. A. Pescador, E. F. Flores, R. Weiblen, D. Driemeier, J. F. Ridpath, C. W. Canal
Transboundary and emerging diseases 2017 v.64 no.2 pp. 613-623
5' untranslated regions, Border disease virus, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, cattle, cell culture, emerging diseases, etiological agents, fetal bovine serum, genetic variation, genotyping, glycoproteins, Brazil
Pestivirus infections in ruminants result in significant economic losses worldwide. The aetiological agents are three species from the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, including bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV‐1), BVDV‐2, border disease virus (BDV), and an atypical pestivirus named HoBi‐like pestivirus. In this study, eighty‐nine pestivirus isolates that were collected in Brazil between 1995 and 2014 and that originated from either cattle, fetal bovine serum (FBS) or as cell culture contaminants were genotyped based on a comparison of gene sequences from their 5′ untranslated regions (5′UTR), N‐terminal autoprotease (Nᵖʳᵒ) and envelope glycoprotein 2 (E2). Of these isolates, 53.9% of the sequences were genotyped as BVDV‐1, 33.7% as BVDV‐2 and 12.4% as HoBi‐like pestivirus. The prevalence of subgenotypes within the species was as follows: BVDV‐1a (35.9%), BVDV‐2b (31.4%), BVDV‐1b (10.1%), BVDV‐1d (6.7%), BVDV‐2c (2.2%) and BVDV‐1e (1.1%). BVDV‐2c and BVDV‐1e were detected for the first time in Brazil. This study revealed extensive genetic diversity among Brazilian pestivirus isolates, and the combination of pestiviruses that was detected is unique to Brazil. This information may serve as a foundation for designing and evaluating diagnostic tools and in the development of more effective vaccines; therefore, it may potentially contribute to pestivirus control and eradication.