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Co-administration of saponin quil A and PRRSV-1 modified-live virus vaccine up-regulates gene expression of type I interferon-regulated gene, type I and II interferon, and inflammatory cytokines and reduces viremia in response to PRRSV-2 challenge

Charerntantanakul, Wasin, Pongjaroenkit, Saengtong
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2018 v.205 pp. 24-34
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, animal use reduction, cross immunity, enzymes, gene expression regulation, genes, immune response, immunostimulants, interferon regulatory factor-3, interferons, interleukin-13, interleukin-2, messenger RNA, mononuclear leukocytes, neutralization, neutralizing antibodies, osteopontin, saponins, solvents, swine, temperature, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vaccination, vaccines, viremia, viruses, weight gain
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a devastating virus which suppresses the expression of type I and II interferons (IFNs) as well as several pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our previous study reported that saponin quil A had a potential to up-regulate the expression of type I IFN-regulated genes and type I and II IFNs in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) inoculated with PRRSV. The present study evaluated the immunostimulatory effect of quil A on potentiating cross protective immunity of PRRSV-1 modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine against PRRSV-2 challenge. Twenty-four 4-week-old PRRSV-seronegative pigs were divided into four groups of six pigs. Group 1 and group 2 pigs were vaccinated with PRRSV-1 MLV vaccine at 0 dpv (day post vaccination), and additionally group 2 pigs were injected intramuscularly with quil A at −1, 0, 1 dpv. Group 3 pigs were injected with PRRSV-1 MLV vaccine solvent at 0 dpv and served as challenge control, while group 4 pigs served as strict control. Group 1–3 pigs were challenged intranasally with PRRSV-2 at 28 dpv and immune and clinical parameters were observed from 0 until 49 dpv. Group 1 pigs showed significantly reduced PRRSV viremia, number of viremic pigs, and clinical scores, and significantly improved average daily weight gain (ADWG), compared to group 3 pigs. Group 2 pigs showed significantly increased mRNA expressions of interferon regulatory factor 3, 2′-5′-oligoadenylatesynthetase 1, osteopontin, IFNα, IFNβ, IFNγ, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, compared to group 1 pigs. The animals demonstrated significantly reduced PRRSV viremia and number of viremic pigs, but did not demonstrate any further improved PRRSV-specific antibody levels, neutralizing antibody titers, rectal temperature, clinical scores, and ADWG as compared to group 1 pigs. Our findings suggest that quil A up-regulates type I IFN-regulated gene, type I and II IFNs, and inflammatory cytokine expressions which may contribute to further reducing PRRSV viremia and number of viremic pigs which were conferred by PRRSV-1 MLV vaccine. Our findings also suggest that quil A may serve as an effective immunostimulator for potentiating cell-mediated immune defense to PRRSV.