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Tracking donor funding towards achieving the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) goals: A landscape analysis (1990–2016)

Ikilezi, Gloria, Zlavog, Bianca, Augusto, Orvalho J., Sherr, Kenneth, Lim, Stephen S., Dieleman, Joseph L.
Vaccine 2018 v.36 no.49 pp. 7487-7495
childhood, cost estimates, funding, immunization, landscapes, vaccines, United States
Efforts driving universal coverage have recently been strengthened through implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) where cost estimates for immunization support were developed totaling US$40 billion of donor assistance by 2020. In addition to resource mobilization, there has been an increasing focus on improving both vaccine access and delivery systems. We track donor assistance for immunization by funding objective and channel from 1990 to 2016, and illustrate projections through 2020 to inform progress of the GVAP.Using available data from development agencies supporting immunization, we categorize funding by vaccine and quantify support for systems strengthening. We split time into four periods including the post universal childhood immunization era (1990–1999) and Gavi’s three funding phases between 2000 and 2015, during which annualized funding changes are estimated. Lastly, we perform a linear extrapolation through 2020 to predict the success of stipulated resource mobilization targets. Double counting was eliminated and results presented in real 2017 US dollars.Over the last 27 years, funding for immunization increased by 10.5% annually, with non-Gavi funding increasing by 7.1% and Gavi funding by 23.6% in the last 17 years. Gavi disbursements targeting vaccines and health system improvements increased uniformly at 15%, compared to 22.5% for vaccines and 11.7% for system strengthening from non-Gavi channels. Funding fluctuated for non-Gavi channels with disbursements declining before 2000 and during Gavi funding phase II, while Gavi disbursements continued to grow relative the previous phase. New and underused vaccines were prioritized by Gavi whereas non-Gavi channels focused on elimination efforts. Projected funding targets were estimated to be on track for Gavi contrary to non-Gavi support which was estimated to remain 40% below the stipulated target.Renewed assessments for funding requirements need to be undertaken, while strengthening existing resource efficiencies in order to achieve current global universal coverage targets.