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Endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild freshwater fishes: Species, tissues, sizes and human health risks

Zhou, Xinyi, Yang, Zhaoguang, Luo, Zhoufei, Li, Haipu, Chen, Guoyao
Environmental pollution 2019 v.244 pp. 462-468
Cyprinus carpio, Monte Carlo method, Parabramis pekinensis, Siniperca chuatsi, acceptable daily intake, adverse effects, aquatic environment, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, bisphenol A, carnivores, diethylstilbestrol, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, estradiol, estrone, excretion, fish consumption, freshwater fish, herbivores, human health, liver, metabolism, muscles, omnivores, reproductive system, risk, rivers, sediments, sludge, tissues, China
Increasing attention has been devoted to the adverse effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on aquatic environments, such as water, sediment and sludge. To date, few studies have investigated the bio-accumulative characteristics of EDCs in different tissues of diverse wild freshwater fish species and their combined impacts on human health. Five EDCs were investigated in the muscle, liver, gill and, especially, gonad of three fish species collected from the Xiangjiang River, southern China. Carnivorous Siniperca Chuatsi or omnivorous Cyprinus Carpio accumulated higher contents of bisphenol A (BPA) and estrone than herbivorous Parabramis Pekinensis in muscle. Furthermore, 4-n-nonylphenol and estrone were found at higher levels and more frequently in the liver, implying that the liver played an important role in basic metabolism for accumulation, biotransformation and excretion of EDCs. Highest concentrations of BPA found in the gonad revealed that the BPA may pose a serious threat to the reproductive system of aquatic organisms. The mean liver/muscle concentration ratios of 4-n-nonylphenol, BPA, estrone and 17α-ethynyl estradiol confirmed the prolonged exposure of the fish to these EDCs. In addition, the relationships between the fish sizes and the EDC concentrations analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis implied that the bioaccumulation of diethylstilbestrol and BPA increased with the growth of Parabramis Pekinensis, and there was a balance between the uptake rate and elimination rate of EDCs in Siniperca Chuatsi and Cyprinus Carpio. Most importantly, the cumulative impacts of combined EDCs on human health by fish consumption were evaluated. The total estradiol equivalent quantity of estrogens was higher than that of phenols. Also, based on the results of the Monte-Carlo simulation, the 95th percentile values of the total estimated daily intakes from consuming the three freshwater fish species from the Xiangjiang River were higher than the acceptable daily intake.