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A molecular basis for the synergy between 17‑allylamino‑17‑demethoxy geldanamycin with Capecitabine and Irinotecan in human colorectal cancer cells through VEFG and MMP-9 gene expression

Zeynali-Moghaddam, Shima, Mohammadian, Mahshid, Kheradmand, Fatemeh, Fathi-Azarbayjani, Anahita, Rasmi, Yousef, Esna-Ashari, Omid, Malekinejad, Hassan
Gene 2019 v.684 pp. 30-38
angiogenesis, antioxidant activity, colorectal neoplasms, gelatinase B, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, humans, malondialdehyde, messenger RNA, metastasis, neoplasm cells, nitric oxide, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, synergism, therapeutics, vascular endothelial growth factors
Anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of 17‑allylamino‑17‑demethoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG) were studied alone and in combination with Capecitabine (Cap) and/or Irinotecan (IR) on HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Expression of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase‑9) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. The study was further followed by wound scratch assay for migration assessment. Nitric oxide content, Malondialdehyde generation and total anti-oxidant capacity were also assessed. Results showed significant differences between mono- and double therapy (p < 0.05). Combination of 17-AAG with IR or Cap resulted in synergistic effect (Combination Index < 1). Among double combination groups only Cap/17-AAG showed significant differences in MMP-9 and VEGF genes expression and wound healing assay. Moreover, a significant decrease of wound area in our triple combination group was obtained, indicating the antagonistic effect. IR/17-AAG and IR/Cap double combination groups resulted in down-regulation of MMP-9 and VEGF mRNA expression, respectively. Significant generation of MDA and decrease in TAC values have been observed in all our tested groups, however, the IR/17-AAG combination was the only group that could elevate NO concentration, significantly. Our findings demonstrated potent anti-angiogenesis and anti-metastatic effects for 17-AAG when it is provided in double combination especially with Cap, suggesting a new protocol in colorectal cancer combination therapy. These findings may indicate that down-regulation of VEGF and MMP-9 genes is directly related to angiogenesis and metastasis.