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Efficacy of a modified-live virus vaccine in pigs experimentally infected with a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type 1 (HP-PRRSV-1)

Canelli, Elena, Catella, Alessia, Borghetti, Paolo, Ferrari, Luca, Ogno, Giulia, De Angelis, Elena, Bonilauri, Paolo, Guazzetti, Stefano, Nardini, Roberto, Martelli, Paolo
Veterinary microbiology 2018 v.226 pp. 89-96
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, adaptive immunity, financial economics, genomics, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, pork industry, swine, swine production, vaccination, vaccines, viremia, virulence, viruses, weight gain
PRRS is one of the main viral diseases in pig production, causing huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. The virus shows an intrinsic genomic instability and is able to change continuously, with the emergence of new strains, with different pathogenicity patterns. Commercially available vaccines only partially prevent or counteract the disease and the correlated losses. Moreover, the emergence of highly virulent and pathogenetic isolates represents a particular concern for PRRS control and diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a modified-live virus (MLV) PRRSV-1 commercial vaccine in reducing the severity of the disease and minimizing losses upon challenge with a highly pathogenic PRRSV-1.1 Italian isolate (PRRSV-1_PR40/2014). Four different groups were compared: C (unvaccinated-uninfected), VAC-C (vaccinated-uninfected), PR40 (unvaccinated-infected) and VAC-PR40 (vaccinated-infected). The tested vaccine provided partial, but statistically significant clinical, virological and pathological protection after challenge under experimental conditions. In particular, vaccinated animals showed reduced viremia in terms of duration and magnitude, reduced respiratory signs and pathological lesions. Vaccination was able to trigger adaptive immunity able to respond efficiently also against the HP PR40 isolate. Vaccinated animals showed higher average daily weight gain, even during the viremic period, compared to non-vaccinated challenged pigs.