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Optimal performance of electric vehicles parking lot considering environmental issue
- Jannati, Jamil, Nazarpour, Daryoosh
- Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.206 pp. 1073-1088
- algorithms, economic performance, electric vehicles, energy, hydrogen, models, production functions, solar collectors, solar energy, wind power, wind turbines
- In this paper, a bi-objective optimization framework has been proposed for solar photovoltaic-based intelligent electric vehicles parking lot in the presence of demand response program to satisfy both environmental and economic issues of parking lot. Time-of-use model of demand response program is utilized to promote both environmental and economic performance of parking lot. In fact, by using this program, the consumer will be encouraged to shift its energy demand from peak periods to off-peak ones and this will result in enhancement of environmental and economic performance of the parking lot. In order to solve such a problem with multiple objective functions, weighted sum and fuzzy decision-making algorithms are implemented. A sample model of parking lot with various energy resources like the upstream network, renewable and non-renewable energy resources such as solar photovoltaic system, wind turbine, and local dispatchable generation systems have been used in addition to a hydrogen energy storage system ensuring a reliable power to the energy demand. The proposed model is investigated from economic and environmental aspects and the results reveal that by applying demand response program, total emission and operation cost of the parking lot have been reduced up to 2.67% and 4.28%, respectively.