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The influence of temperature on the performance of rubber - PET-HDPE waste -based composites with different inorganic fillers

Cazan, Cristina, Cosnita, Mihaela, Isac, Luminita
Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.208 pp. 1030-1040
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, calcium oxide, ceramics, contact angle, crystal structure, energy, fly ash, mechanical testing, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalates, powders, recycled materials, rubber, temperature, tires, titanium dioxide, wastes, zinc oxide
The aim of this study is the development of new multifunctional composites with controlled interface properties, for products dedicated to the sustainable built environment. The composites were obtained from recycled materials: rubber from waste tyres as matrix, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as reinforcement material and high density polyethylene (HDPE) as additive. Composites composition was varied by using ceramic powders (TiO2, CaO, ZnO, fly ash) as low content fillers to increase mechanical performance, as result of improving interfaces properties between tyre rubber and PET. The interface properties of PET - rubber composites with different oxide fillers were investigated after the samples were kept in two temperatures domains, selected according to the outdoor applications of these materials; the testing domains were: + 10 °C/+ 50 °C (series I) and - 40 °C/- 10 °C (series II). The composites properties are strongly influenced by the components type and by the interface between the oxide particles and the polymer matrix. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the surface morphology. The surface energy variations and the interface properties were evaluated using contact angle measurements, while the crystalline structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the chemical/physical interactions by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structural results are consistent with the mechanical tests results and show that the interface properties are improved by adding different metallic oxides and fly ash as fillers in the composite. The best results are obtained by using fly ash for low temperature applications and CaO for high temperature use.