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Epidural anesthesia and analgesia in small animal practice: An update
- Garcia-Pereira, F.
- The veterinary journal 2018 v.242 pp. 24-32
- adverse effects, analgesia, anesthesia, combination drug therapy, drugs, humans, pain, small animal practice
- Epidural anesthesia is a commonly performed technique in both human and veterinary medicine. The technique is relatively simple following appropriate training and provides anesthesia and analgesia for acute and chronic pain. Several drug combinations have been administered by this route with variable success and duration. Multiple techniques to guide or confirm correct epidural needle placement are discussed in this article, as well as anatomical features of the epidural space, effect of drug volume and concentration, and adverse effects of the technique in small animal practice. This article is not an exhaustive review of the literature, but an update of some new findings over the last decade.