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A novel herbal product based on Piper betle and Sphaeranthus indicus essential oils: Toxicity, repellent activity and impact on detoxifying enzymes GST and CYP450 of Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)
- Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran, Chellappandian, Muthiah, Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan, Ponsankar, Athirstam, Thanigaivel, Annamalai, Karthi, Sengodan, Edwin, Edward-Sam, Selin-Rani, Selvaraj, Kalaivani, Kandaswamy, Maggi, Filippo, Benelli, Giovanni
- Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology 2018 v.21 no.4 pp. 1466-1472
- Aedes aegypti, Echinops ritro, Piper betle, Sphaeranthus indicus, adverse effects, betel, dengue, enzymes, essential oils, instars, larvae, leaves, lethal concentration 50, pupae, steam, toxicity
- Fresh leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asterales: Asteraceae), commonly known as betel leaves and East Indian globe thistle, respectively, were harvested and steam distilled for the extraction of P. betle and S. indicus crude volatile oils (Pb-CVO and Si-CVO, respectively). LC50 calculated on 3rd instar larvae of dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae) was 42.17 ppm for PbSi-CVO (i.e., herbal formulation based on the EOs of P. betle and S. indicus). The larval and pupal duration were significantly longer post-treatment with 100 ppm of PbSi-CVO, if compared to control. We observed that PbSi-CVO significantly altered the detoxifying enzymes GST and CYP450 compared to the expression of control. Sub-lethal concentrations of PbSi-CVO showed strong repellent properties against dengue mosquitoes, without adverse reactions on the volunteers experiencing the repellent assays. Lastly, the adulticidal activity of PbSi-CVO was studied. Overall, our study outlined that this herbal product represents a promising candidate for the development of botanical based adulticidal agents.