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A novel herbal product based on Piper betle and Sphaeranthus indicus essential oils: Toxicity, repellent activity and impact on detoxifying enzymes GST and CYP450 of Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran, Chellappandian, Muthiah, Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan, Ponsankar, Athirstam, Thanigaivel, Annamalai, Karthi, Sengodan, Edwin, Edward-Sam, Selin-Rani, Selvaraj, Kalaivani, Kandaswamy, Maggi, Filippo, Benelli, Giovanni
Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology 2018 v.21 no.4 pp. 1466-1472
Aedes aegypti, Echinops ritro, Piper betle, Sphaeranthus indicus, adverse effects, betel, dengue, enzymes, essential oils, instars, larvae, leaves, lethal concentration 50, pupae, steam, toxicity
Fresh leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asterales: Asteraceae), commonly known as betel leaves and East Indian globe thistle, respectively, were harvested and steam distilled for the extraction of P. betle and S. indicus crude volatile oils (Pb-CVO and Si-CVO, respectively). LC50 calculated on 3rd instar larvae of dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae) was 42.17 ppm for PbSi-CVO (i.e., herbal formulation based on the EOs of P. betle and S. indicus). The larval and pupal duration were significantly longer post-treatment with 100 ppm of PbSi-CVO, if compared to control. We observed that PbSi-CVO significantly altered the detoxifying enzymes GST and CYP450 compared to the expression of control. Sub-lethal concentrations of PbSi-CVO showed strong repellent properties against dengue mosquitoes, without adverse reactions on the volunteers experiencing the repellent assays. Lastly, the adulticidal activity of PbSi-CVO was studied. Overall, our study outlined that this herbal product represents a promising candidate for the development of botanical based adulticidal agents.