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Biological Response of Osteoblastic and Chondrogenic Cells to Graphene-Containing PCL/Bioactive Glass Bilayered Scaffolds for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering Applications
- Deliormanlı, Aylin M., Atmaca, Harika
- Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 2018 v.186 no.4 pp. 972-989
- alizarin, calcium, cartilage, cell viability, coculture, cytotoxicity, glass, glycosaminoglycans, mineralization, staining, tissue engineering, tissue repair, toxicity testing
- Graphene-containing 13-93 bioactive glass and poly(ε-caprolactone)-based bilayer, electrically conductive scaffolds were prepared for osteochondral tissue repair. Biological response of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 and chondrogenic ATDC5 cells to the composite scaffolds was assessed under mono-culture and co-culture conditions. Cytotoxicity was investigated using MTT assay, cartilage matrix production was evaluated by Alcian blue staining, and mineralization of both types of cells in the different culture systems was observed by Alizarin red S staining. Results showed that osteoblastic and chondrogenic cells utilized in the study did not show toxic response to the prepared scaffolds under mono-culture conditions and higher cell viability rates were obtained in co-culture conditions. Larger mineralized areas were determined under co-culture conditions and calcium deposition amount significantly increased compared with that in control group samples after 21 days. Additionally, the amount of glycosaminoglycans synthesized in co-culture was higher compared to mono-culture conditions. Electric stimulation applied under mono-culture conditions suppressed the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells whereas it enhanced the viability rates of ATDC5 cells. The study suggests that the designed bilayered osteochondral constructs have the potential for osteochondral defect repair.