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Epidemiological assessment of the risk of canine mast cell tumours based on the Kiupel two-grade malignancy classification

Śmiech, Anna, Ślaska, Brygida, Łopuszyński, Wojciech, Jasik, Agnieszka, Bochyńska, Diana, Dąbrowski, Roman
Acta veterinaria scandinavica 2018 v.60 no.1 pp. 70
Weimaraner, confidence interval, dogs, females, histopathology, mast cells, metastasis, odds ratio, phenotype, prognosis, regression analysis, risk, scrotum, skin neoplasms
BACKGROUND: The degree of differentiation of mast cell tumours (MCTs) is the most important feature and reflects the morphological characteristics and metastatic potential of the tumour and its likely response to treatment and the prognosis. The aim of this study was to epidemiologically analyse the risk of MCT development in dogs according to breed, age, sex, size and anatomical location of the tumour using the Kiupel grading system. The analysis involved 492 dogs selected based on a histopathological assessment of 2763 canine skin tumours. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Mast cell tumours accounted for 17.8% of all diagnosed canine skin tumours. The highest risk of high-grade MCTs was noted in the Shar-Pei (OR 28.18, P < 0.001) and Weimaraner (OR 6.45, P = 0.023). The highest risk of low-grade MCTs was determined in the Boxer (OR 6.72, P < 0.001), and Pug (OR 6.13, P = 0.027). The scrotum (OR 31.72, P < 0.001), inguinal area (OR 17.69, P < 0.001) and axilla (OR 6.30, P < 0.001) had the highest risk of high-grade MCTs. The risk of high-grade MCTs increased with age and peaked in the oldest dogs, aged 11–16 years (OR 9.55, P < 0.001). A higher risk of low-grade tumours was noted in younger dogs (aged 4–6 years) (OR 8.54, P < 0.001) and females (OR 1.43, P = 0.001). Statistical analysis further revealed a higher risk of both low (OR 3.47, P < 0.001) and high-grade MCTs (OR 1.71, P = 0.006) in medium-sized dogs. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated relationships between Kiupel grading system and phenotypic traits, age and location of canine MCTs confirming the complex biological nature of this tumour.