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Cysteine 180 Is a Redox Sensor Modulating the Activity of Human Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate Histidine Decarboxylase

Rossignoli, Giada, Grottesi, Alessandro, Bisello, Giovanni, Montioli, Riccardo, Borri Voltattorni, Carla, Paiardini, Alessandro, Bertoldi, Mariarita
Biochemistry 2018 v.57 no.44 pp. 6336-6348
active sites, amino acid sequences, bioactive compounds, bioinformatics, cell growth, cysteine, functional properties, gastrointestinal system, histamine, histidine, histidine decarboxylase, humans, molecular dynamics, oxidation, protein content, pyridoxal, pyridoxal phosphate, reducing agents, simulation models
Histidine decarboxylase is a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate enzyme catalyzing the conversion of histidine to histamine, a bioactive molecule exerting its role in many modulatory processes. The human enzyme is involved in many physiological functions, such as neurotransmission, gastrointestinal track function, cell growth, and differentiation. Here, we studied the functional properties of the human enzyme and, in particular, the effects exerted at the protein level by two cysteine residues: Cys-180 and Cys-418. Surprisingly, the enzyme exists in an equilibrium between a reduced and an oxidized form whose extent depends on the redox state of Cys-180. Moreover, we determined that (i) the two enzymatic redox species exhibit modest structural changes in the coenzyme microenvironment and (ii) the oxidized form is slightly more active and stable than the reduced one. These data are consistent with the model proposed by bioinformatics analyses and molecular dynamics simulations in which the Cys-180 redox state could be responsible for a structural transition affecting the C-terminal domain reorientation leading to active site alterations. Furthermore, the biochemical properties of the purified C180S and C418S variants reveal that C180S behaves like the reduced form of the wild-type enzyme, while C418S is sensitive to reductants like the wild-type enzyme, thus allowing the identification of Cys-180 as the redox sensitive switch. On the other hand, Cys-418 appears to be a residue involved in aggregation propensity. A possible role for Cys-180 as a regulatory switch in response to different cellular redox conditions could be suggested.