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Free-Standing Metal Films Prepared via Electroless Plating at Liquid–Liquid Interfaces
- Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiko, Yohaze, Yu, Watanabe, Takaichi, Ono, Tsutomu
- Langmuir 2018 v.34 no.44 pp. 13183-13191
- catalysts, copper, copper nanoparticles, electrical conductivity, energy, ethylene dichloride, liquid-liquid interface, mixing, palladium, solvents
- We report a simple preparation of free-standing metal films via electroless plating (ELP) at the liquid–liquid (L–L) interface between an aqueous electroless plating solution and an organic solvent. The use of ELP does not require any external energy in the form of heating and stirring. We find that the affinity of the organic solvent for the palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) as catalysts and the vertical position of the organic and aqueous phases in the biphasic system are important considerations for synthesizing a robust copper film. Specifically, 1,2-dichloroethane which has an appropriate affinity for PdNPs and a higher density than water was found to be a good candidate for use as the organic phase in this system. However, a poor-quality copper film was obtained in the system with 1-hexanol as the organic phase. We also controlled the microscale surface structure of the copper films by using different concentrations of the injected PdNP dispersion. A high density of PdNPs caused smaller regions of metal growth, which contributed to the formation of smoother metal films. Moreover, under the optimal synthesis condition, we confirmed the electrical conductivity of the obtained copper film to be 1.16 × 10–⁷ Ωm. We believe that this metal film preparation represents a promising way to produce a range of metal film structures through the use of flexible L–L interfaces as templates.