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Effects of Mono‐, Di‐, and Tri‐Saccharides on the Stability and Crystallization of Amorphous Sucrose

Thorat, Alpana A., Forny, Laurent, Meunier, Vincent, Taylor, Lynne S., Mauer, Lisa J.
Journal of food science 2018 v.83 no.11 pp. 2827-2839
X-ray diffraction, additives, cellobiose, crystal structure, crystallization, crystals, differential scanning calorimetry, environmental factors, foods, freeze drying, fructose, glass transition temperature, glucose, isomaltulose, lactose, maltose, maltotriose, microscopy, molecular weight, raffinose, relative humidity, shelf life, storage temperature, sucrose, texture, trehalose, water content
Amorphous sucrose is a component of many food products but is prone to crystallize over time, thereby altering product quality and limiting shelf‐life. A systematic investigation was conducted to determine the effects of two monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), five disaccharides (lactose, maltose, trehalose, isomaltulose, and cellobiose), and two trisaccharides (maltotriose and raffinose) on the stability of amorphous sucrose in lyophilized two‐component sucrose‐saccharide blends exposed to different relative humidity (RH) and temperature environmental conditions relevant for food product storage. Analyses included X‐ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, microscopy, and moisture content determination, as well as crystal structure overlays. All lyophiles were initially amorphous, but during storage the presence of an additional saccharide tended to delay sucrose crystallization. All samples remained amorphous when stored at 11% and 23% RH at 22 °C, but increasing the RH to 33% RH and/or increasing the temperature to 40 °C resulted in variations in crystallization onset times. Monosaccharide additives were less effective sucrose crystallization inhibitors relative to di‐ and tri‐saccharides. Within the group of di‐ and tri‐saccharides, effectiveness depended on the specific saccharide added, and no clear trends were observed with saccharide molecular weight and other commonly studied factors such as system glass transition temperature. Molecular level interactions, as evident in crystal structure overlays of the added saccharides and sucrose and morphological differences in crystals formed, appeared to contribute to the effectiveness of a di‐ or tri‐saccharide in delaying sucrose crystallization. In conclusion, several di‐ and tri‐saccharides show promise for use as additives to delay the crystallization kinetics of amorphous sucrose during storage at moderate temperatures and low RH conditions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Amorphous sucrose is desirable in a variety of food products, wherein crystallization can be problematic for texture and shelf‐life. This study documents how different mono‐, di‐, and tri‐saccharides influence the crystallization of sucrose. Monosaccharide additives were less effective sucrose crystallization inhibitors relative to di‐ and tri‐saccharides. These findings increase the understanding of how different mono‐, di‐, and tri‐saccharide structures and their solid‐state properties influence the crystallization of amorphous sucrose and show that several di‐ and tri‐saccharides have potential for use as sucrose crystallization inhibitors.