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Fruit Bagasse Phytochemicals from Malpighia Emarginata Rich in Enzymatic Inhibitor with Modulatory Action on Hemostatic Processes

Marques, Tamara R., Cesar, Pedro Henrique S., Braga, Mariana A., Marcussi, Silvana, Corrêa, Angelita D.
Journal of food science 2018 v.83 no.11 pp. 2840-2849
Bothrops atrox, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Lachesis muta, Malpighia emarginata, acerolas, agricultural wastes, anticoagulants, bagasse, blood coagulation, catechin, coagulants, coagulation, cosmetics, enzyme activity, enzyme inhibition, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, food industry, fruits, functional foods, gallic acid, health promotion, hemolysis, high performance liquid chromatography, humans, inflammation, p-coumaric acid, phospholipases, phospholipids, platelet aggregation, proteinases, quercetin, snake venoms, syringic acid
Agro‐industrial wastes are promising sources of phytochemicals for the development of products to be used in health promotion and maintenance. In this study, extracts from acerola bagasse (AB) were characterized by HPLC, and evaluated according to its modulatory action on phospholipases A₂ and proteases involved in processes such as inflammation and blood clotting. Snake venoms were used as biological tools once they have high functional and structural homology between their enzymes and human enzymes. Two types of extracts were prepared from AB: aqueous and methanolic. These extracts, evaluated at different proportions (venom:extract, w:w), significantly inhibited the phospholipase activity induced by the venoms of Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops atrox (11% to 31%), and Crotalus durissus terrificus (C. d. t.) (11% to 19%). The hemolytic activity induced by the venoms of B. moojeni and C. d. t. was better inhibited by the methanolic extract (inhibition between 23% and 48%). Thrombolysis induced by the venoms of B. moojeni and C. d. t. was inhibited by both extracts, with inhibition ranging from 13% to 63% for the aqueous extract, and from 12% to 92% for the methanolic one. Both extracts increased the time of coagulation induced by the venoms of B. moojeni and Lachesis muta muta in 26 and up to 68 s. These inhibitory actions were related to the following phenolic compounds present in the extract of AB: gallic acid, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, syringic acid, p‐coumaric acid, and quercetin. Additional studies are needed to confirm their potential use for nutraceutical purposes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Agro‐industrial wastes are promising sources of phytochemicals for the development of products that can be used by pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. Studies report the use of the acerola bagasse extract in health improvement. However, its toxic‐pharmacological characterization is still scarce. In this study, the extracts of acerola bagasse presented phenolic compounds that can modulate the activity of enzymes such as phospholipases A₂ and proteases that act on the coagulant/anticoagulant and thrombotic/thrombolytic activities and the break of phospholipids, decreasing the inflammation and platelet aggregation. Although the in vivo effects of the extracts are not fully understood, this study shed light upon the possibilities of their usage.