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In vivo bioavailability of polyphenols from grape by‐product extracts, and effect on lipemia of normocholesterolemic Wistar rats

Olivero‐David, Raul, Ruiz‐Roso, María B, Caporaso, Nicola, Perez‐Olleros, Lourdes, De las Heras, Natalia, Lahera, Vicente, Ruiz‐Roso, Baltasar
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2018 v.98 no.15 pp. 5581-5590
absorption, bile acids, bioavailability, byproducts, cholesterol, diet, digestion, feces, functional foods, grapes, hypercholesterolemia, ingredients, laboratory animals, lipid metabolism, lipoproteins, liver, myricetin, polyphenols, rats, urine
BACKGROUND: The direct use of phenolic extracts from grape by‐products can be useful when formulating functional food to improve consumer health. The use of phenolic extracts instead of pure polyphenols as an ingredient is relevant in this context. The present study investigated the bioavailability and absorption of polyphenols from grape by‐product extracts and their health effect on cholesterolemia, by adding the extract (GE) to Wistar rats diet (50 g kg⁻¹) in vivo. RESULTS: GE caused the appearance of (+)‐catechin, myricetin and quercetic acid in plasma and liver. (+)‐Catechin was the most abundant compound (6 μg mL⁻¹ in plasma and 0.7 μg mg⁻¹ protein in liver), whereas no phenolic compounds were detected in plasma or liver in the control group. Similarly, 3,4‐hydroxyphenylacetic, a major product of polyphenol digestion, was detected in the plasma, liver and urine of the GE‐group only. GE‐group had significantly lower cholesterol level and lower total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein ratio in plasma. Total bile acid content significantly increased in fecal matter after 24 h administration of the GE‐enriched diet. CONCLUSION: Grape extract polyphenols are partially bioavailable and showed improvement in lipid metabolism. Thus, the results suggest that GE is promising as a functional ingredient in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry