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Continuous cardiometabolic risk score definitions in early childhood: a scoping review
- Kamel, M., Smith, B. T., Wahi, G., Carsley, S., Birken, C. S., Anderson, L. N.
- Obesity reviews 2018 v.19 no.12 pp. 1688-1699
- adiposity, child health, childhood, children, databases, glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, risk assessment, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerols, waist circumference
- BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in young children has been measured using various approaches, including a continuous summary score that incorporates components such as adiposity, lipids, metabolic factors and blood pressure. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to comprehensively review definitions of continuous CMR scores in children <10 years of age. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted using a systematic search of four scientific databases up to June 2016. Inclusion criteria were children <10 years of age and report of a continuous CMR score. RESULTS: Ninety‐one articles were included. Most studies were published from 2007 to 2016 (96%). Nearly all continuous CMR scores (90%) were calculated using the sum or the mean of z‐scores, and many articles age‐standardized and sex‐standardized components within their own population. The mean number of variables included in the risk scores was 5 with a range of 3–11. The most commonly included score components were waist circumference (52%), triglycerides (87%), high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (67%), glucose (43%) and systolic blood pressure (52%). IMPORTANCE: Continuous CMR scores are emerging frequently in the child health literature and are calculated using numerous methods with diverse components. This heterogeneity limits comparability across studies. A harmonized definition of CMR in childhood is needed.