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In vitro growth profile and comparative leaf anatomy of the C3–C4 intermediate plant Mollugo nudicaulis Lam.

Barupal, Meena, Kataria, Vinod, Shekhawat, Narpat S.
In vitro cellular & developmental biology 2018 v.54 no.6 pp. 689-700
Mollugo, additives, benzyladenine, callus, culture media, ecophysiology, hypocotyls, in vitro studies, kinetin, leaves, micropropagation, naphthaleneacetic acid, organogenesis, photosynthesis, protocols, rooting, seedlings, shoots, thidiazuron, tropics
Mollugo nudicaulis Lam., commonly known as John’s folly or naked-stem carpetweed, is an ephemeral species of tropical regions. The plant is ideal to study the eco-physiological adaptations of C₃–C₄ intermediate plants. In the present report, in vitro growth profiling of the plant and comparative leaf anatomy under in vitro and ex vitro conditions were studied. In vitro propagation of the plant was carried out on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium augmented with additives and solidified with 0.8% (w/v) agar-agar or 0.16% (w/v) Phytagel™. The concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in the basal medium was optimized for callus induction, callus proliferation, shoot regeneration, and in vitro rooting. The optimum callus induction was obtained from M. nudicaulis seedling hypocotyls. The highest regeneration induction of about 88% or nearly 41 shoots with about 142 leaves per culture vessel was observed from friable callus on MS basal medium solidified with Phytagel™ and containing 4.44 μM 6-benzylaminopurine, 4.65 μM kinetin, 2.69 μM naphthaleneacetic acid, and 0.91 μM thidiazuron. In leaf anatomy, differences related to photosynthetic tissue organization were observed in leaves of in vitro and ex vitro plants, which indicated that changes in the environment affected the anatomy of subsequent leaves in plants. This is the first report of an efficient micropropagation protocol for M. nudicaulis, using an indirect organogenesis method. Efforts were made to optimize the concentrations of various PGRs and organic compounds for in vitro growth of regenerated shoots.