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Steaming time effects on the moisture migration and structural properties of Chinese Northern-style steamed bread
- Li, Yong, Shi, Wentao
- Journal of food measurement & characterization 2018 v.12 no.4 pp. 2435-2443
- X-ray diffraction, biopolymers, breads, dough, gelatinization, gluten, microstructure, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, porous media, protons, scanning electron microscopy, species abundance, starch, steaming
- The aim of this study was to investigate the steaming time effects on proton transverse relaxation behavior with low field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and structural properties of Chinese Northern-style steamed bread (CNSB). Three proton populations could be distinguished at the first 4 min: T₂b (0.1–1 ms) corresponded to rigid and exchangeable protons; T₂₂ (9–21 ms) was associated with the water protons in small and large meshes of the dough microstructure; T₂₃ (69–300 ms) was assigned to the water protons on the surface of samples. The starch gelatinization began and the water turned into the integral part of the biopolymer at 6 min, forming T₂₁ (1–3 ms) fraction. The gelatinization effect was strengthened up to 8 min and supplied a more mobile microenvironment, resulting in the increase of T₂₁, A₂₁ and M₂₁. However, the gelatinization process ended at 8 min, bringing about the stabilization of T₂₁, A₂₁ and M₂₁ until 25 min. T₂₂ fraction accounted for the largest proportion during all the steaming process. All variation trends on structural properties of CNSB and T₂ relaxation parameters including Tᵢ, Aᵢ (relative intensity of Tᵢ), and Mᵢ (population abundance of Tᵢ) indicated that 6 and 8 min were the two transitions. The gluten matrix began to be disrupted at 6 min and was quite damaged up to 8 min by scanning electron microscopy. The peaks at 15°, 18°, 20°, and 23° in X-ray diffraction patterns appeared in the first 6 min but were lost up to 8, 10, and 25 min.