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Inhibitory effects of acetophenone or phenylethyl alcohol as fumigant to protect soybean seeds against two aflatoxin-producing fungi

Boukaew, Sawai, Prasertsan, Poonsuk
Journal of food science and technology 2018 v.55 no.12 pp. 5123-5132
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, acetophenones, adverse effects, antifungal properties, conidia, death, fumigants, fumigation, fungi, phenylethyl alcohol, scanning electron microscopy, seed germination, seeds, soybeans, sporulation, volatile compounds
The antifungal activity of acetophenone and phenylethyl alcohol prevents seed contamination by Aspergillus flavus TISTR 3041 and A. parasiticus TISTR 3276. Their effects on seed germination were investigated. In vitro results showed that 100 µL L⁻¹ acetophenone completely inhibited (by 100%) growth, conidial germination, and sporulation of the two aflatoxin-producing fungi, while phenylethyl alcohol showed only weak inhibitory activity even at 1000 µL L⁻¹. Exposure to acetophenone at 100 µL L⁻¹ for 6 h could completely kill (100% death) both fungal strains, while phenylethyl alcohol showed much lower efficacy (53.12%). In vivo results revealed that fumigation with 100 µL L⁻¹ acetophenone for 24 h completely controlled (100%) A. flavus TISTR 3041 on soybean seeds during a 14-day test but exhibited weak efficacy on A. parasiticus TISTR 3276 (31.77%). Phenylethyl alcohol (1000 µL L⁻¹) demonstrated weak inhibitory effect against both strains. The two volatile compounds had no adverse effects on seed germination. SEM confirmed that acetophenone could completely inhibit conidia germination, and abnormal growth of both fungal strains was observed. Thus, acetophenone has high potential to protect soybean seeds against aflatoxin-producing fungi.