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Gliadin protein antigenicity and health benefitting potential of Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties

Hamid, Asima, Mallick, S. A., Moni, Gupta, Jeelani, M. Iqbal, Sachin, Gupta
Journal of food science and technology 2018 v.55 no.12 pp. 4841-4850
Triticum aestivum, albumins, baking quality, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flavonoids, flour, gliadin, globulins, gluten, iron, nutritive value, phenolic compounds, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein content, starch, sugars, wheat, zinc
Health benefitting potential of twenty leading wheat varieties was assessed for grain nutritional quality status in relation to antigenic reactivity level of gluten protein fractions. Among the nutritional parameters, macronutrients viz. starch, total sugar, total protein and gluten content were observed maximum in the varieties RAJ4120, RAJ4083, RAJ3077, and WH1021 respectively. Micronutrients- zinc and iron and phytochemicals- total phenolics and flavonoids were observed to be maximum in RAJ4083. Among the four protein fraction, albumin and globulin contents were the highest in RAJ3077, whereas gliadin and gluten content was maximum in GW322 and minimum in RAJ4120. The varieties were also characterized by SDS-PAGE and the results revealed significant polymorphism in all of the four protein fractions. The antigenic properties of flour gliadin proteins as evaluated by ELISA revealed that all the varieties possessed antigenicity with highest level in GW322 (0.217 OD). However, all the varieties possessed good baking qualities as studied by rheological measurements.