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Incidence of antibiogram, antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 and 2 integrons in tribe Proteeae with IMP27 gene for the first time in Providencia sp. isolated from pet turtles

Pathirana, H.N.K.S., Shin, G.W., Wimalasena, S.H.M.P., Hossain, S., De Silva, B.C.J., Dahanayake, P.S., Heo, G.‐J.
Letters in applied microbiology 2018 v.67 no.6 pp. 620-627
Morganella, Proteus, Providencia rettgeri, aminoglycosides, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic resistance genes, beta-lactamase, beta-lactams, genotype, macrolides, multiple drug resistance, nitrofurans, pets, public health, tetracycline, turtles, virulence, zoonoses
Proteeae is a tribe which consists of three genera: Proteus, Providencia and Morganella. The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance profile, virulence genotype and class 1 and 2 integrons in Proteeae isolated from pet turtles and to determine the impact of antibiotic resistance on virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. Integron‐positive isolates were used to detect their gene cassette array. Sixty four Proteeae were isolated and all were resistant to macrolides (100%). Among 64 isolates 56, 52, 36 and 25 were resistant to nitrofurans, β‐lactams, tetracycline and aminoglycoside respectively. Sixteen (25%) isolates were positive for intI1 while 14 (21·87%) were positive for integrase 2 (intI2). Eleven (17·18%) isolates were positive for class 1 variable region while 7 (10·93%) were positive for class 2 variable region. IMP27, a novel metallo β‐lactamase gene was found in Providencia isolates. Proteus sp. were positive for every tested virulence genes and UreC gene was detected in 48·44% followed by zapA (17·19%), mrpA (17·19%) and hlyA (14·06%) genes. In this study, integron associated‐antibiotic resistance genes have been identified in Proteeae isolates in a considerable range representing clear threats to public health. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: In this study, multidrug‐resistant Proteeae isolates had several antibiotic resistance genes. Integrons are important contributors to the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. We could detect both class 1 and 2 integrons and several gene cassette arrays in class 1 integron. The gene cassette arrays of the Class 2 integrons contained IMP27‐dfrA1‐aadA1‐catB2‐ybeA‐ybgA in two isolates. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to report detection of IMP27 in Providencia rettgeri isolates. All results indicate that healthy pet turtles act as potential reservoirs for Proteeae species with zoonotic potential.