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The Life History and Other Ecology of Camelobaetidius variabilis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) From Honey Creek, Oklahoma

Perry, H. A., Kennedy, J. H.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America 2016 v.109 no.5 pp. 744-752
Baetidae, algae, ambient temperature, eggs, heat sums, insect ecology, internal temperature, laboratory rearing, leaves, microhabitats, multidimensional scaling, multivoltine habit, nymphs, periphyton, shade, solar radiation, spring, summer, water temperature, winter, Oklahoma
A study of the life history and ecology of Camelobaetidius variabilis was conducted in Honey Creek, Oklahoma, from February 2003–April 2004. C. variabilis exhibited a multivoltine life cycle with five overlapping generations. Ninety percent of lab-reared eggs hatched at 130 degree days (DD) (23 °C) while nymphs successfully emerged at 559 DD at 20.8 ± .38 °C. Microhabitat preference of C. variabilis nymphs was statistically significant for algae during the spring. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed 90% similarity between spring algae, winter leaf packs, fall open bedrocks, and summer divets based on average number of nymphs by developmental stage. Winter leaf packs exposed to shade and sunlight were sampled and total number of nymphs counted. Leaf packs exposed to direct sunlight contained higher numbers of nymphs compared to those in shaded areas. Further internal temperature analysis of leaf packs exposed to sunlight showed an increase in internal leaf pack temperatures compared to ambient water temperature during the winter. C. variabilis nymphs have a varied microhabitat use depending upon season. Since they are scrapers, algae and periphyton are important food resources throughout the year.