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Molecular basis for the thermostability of Newcastle disease virus

Guoyuan Wen, Xiao Hu, Kang Zhao, Hongling Wang, Zhenyu Zhang, Tengfei Zhang, Jinlong Yang, Qingping Luo, Rongrong Zhang, Zishu Pan, Huabin Shao, Qingzhong Yu
Scientifc reports 2016 v.6 no.22492 pp. 1-9
chickens, thermal stability, Newcastle disease, phenotype, antibodies, vaccines, chimerism, Avian orthoavulavirus 1, hemagglutinins, genes, viruses, sialidase, virulence, cold
Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this study, we generated chimeric viruses by exchanging viral genes between the thermostable TS09-C strain and thermolabile LaSota strain using reverse genetics technology. Evaluations of these chimeric NDVs demonstrated that the thermostability of NDV was dependent on the origin of HN protein. Chimeras bearing the HN protein derived from thermostable virus exhibited a thermostable phenotype, and vice versa. Both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities of viruses bearing the TS09-C HN protein were more thermostable than those containing LaSota HN protein. Furthermore, the newly developed thermostable virus rLS-T-HN, encoding the TS09-C HN protein in LaSota backbone, induced significantly higher antibody response than the TS09-C virus, and conferred complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. Taken together, the data suggest that the HN protein of NDV is a crucial determinant of thermostability, and the HN gene from a thermostable NDV could be engineered into a thermolabile NDV vaccine strain for developing novel thermostable NDV vaccine.