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Plant Volatiles Reduce the Viability of the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita Either Directly or When Retained in Water

Silva, Julio Carlos P., Campos, Vicente P., Barros, Aline F., Pedroso, Marcio P., Terra, Willian C., Lopez, Liliana E., de Souza, Jorge T.
Plant disease 2018 v.102 no.11 pp. 2170-2179
Brassica oleracea var. italica, Helianthus annuus, Meloidogyne incognita, alcohols, biofumigation, broccoli, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, eggs, galls, gas chromatography, juveniles, mortality, oilseed crops, pathogenicity, reproduction, root-knot nematodes, roots, shoots, sunflower seed, terpenoids, tomatoes, toxicity, viability, volatile organic compounds
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by green residues for the management of plant-parasitic nematodes are poorly studied for oilseed plants and some Brassica spp. To investigate the activity of VOC in vitro and as biofumigants, dry and aqueous macerates of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) shoots and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed were used against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. VOC produced by sunflower seed caused higher mortality of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J₂) than VOC produced by broccoli shoots but both plant species were equally effective in decreasing the infectivity and reproduction of this nematode. The number of galls and eggs produced by the nematode in tomato roots was reduced by 89 and 95%, respectively, on average, at the highest concentrations of broccoli and sunflower seed macerates tested as biofumigants. When nematodes were placed in water exposed to broccoli VOC, J₂ immobility increased and the number of galls and eggs produced by the nematode in tomato roots decreased 80 and 96%, respectively. Water exposed to sunflower seed VOC had no effect on the viability of the nematode. Gas chromatography was used to identify five and six chemical groups in broccoli and in sunflower seed macerates, respectively, but only alcohols, sulfurated VOC, and terpenes were detected in the water exposed to these plant macerates. Sulfurated VOC from the water exposed to broccoli macerates were found to be involved in its activity against M. incognita. The purified VOC dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and 3-pentanol were tested directly against J₂ and showed a lethal concentration of 176 and 918 µg/ml (ppm), respectively, whereas dimethyl sulfide had no effect against M. incognita. Furthermore, DMDS and 3-pentanol retained in water killed J₂ and reduced gall formation and the number of eggs of M. incognita on tomato roots. Both these plant species produced toxic VOC to M. incognita, whereas only VOC retained in water exposed to broccoli had activity against M. incognita.