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The Effect of Feeding Native Faba Bean Seeds (Vicia faba L.) to Sows and Supplemented With Enzymes to Piglets and Growing Pigs

Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata, Księżak, Jerzy, Hanczakowska, Ewa
Annals of animal science 2018 v.18 no.4 pp. 1007-1027
Vicia faba, barrows, body weight changes, carcass characteristics, digestibility, enzymes, faba beans, finishing, lactating females, lactation, litter weight, meat, meat quality, nutrients, piglets, protein sources, seeds, sensory evaluation, smell, sows, soybean meal, swine feeding, taste, unsaturated fatty acids
The aim of this experiment was to examine the possibility of replacing part of soybean meal in the diets of sows, their piglets and fatteners with two varieties of high- or low-tannin faba bean seed. Twenty-four sows were allocated to 3 groups, 8 animals in each. Control group (C) received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source. Next groups received standard feed mixture in which part of soybean meal was replaced by high-tannin variety Bobas (group HT) or low-tannin variety Kasztelan (group LT). Faba bean was added to diets at the level of 12 and 14% for pregnant and lactating sows, 6% for piglets, and 12 and 16% for fatteners (grower and finisher, respectively). Diets for half piglets and fatteners were supplemented with the enzyme Ronozyme VP. Apparent digestibility of nutrients was evaluated in a parallel experiment, using the same feeds on 18 barrows weighing about 40 kg (grower) and 80 kg (finisher). There was almost no difference in sow reproductive rates, litter weight and body weight of piglets on the first day of life were similar. Until 35 days of age piglets receiving faba bean grew faster than control ones. Control piglets grew fastest from 35 to 84 days of age, but differences were not significant. Enzyme supplement had a positive effect on body weight only from 56 to 84 days of piglet life. Digestibility of nutrients was lower in pigs fed with faba beans, especially in the grower period. Faba bean HT had lower nutrient digestibility in both periods of fattening. Almost all carcass traits were better in control pigs than in those fed with bean variety Bobas. Meat of these pigs had also the lowest content of unsaturated fatty acids and highest atherogenic indices. In sensory evaluation this meat had also the worst smell and taste. It can be stated that faba bean seeds, in moderate amounts, can partially replace soybean meal in feed for pigs, but some lowering of body weight gain and meat quality is possible especially when high-tannin varieties are used.