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A response surface methodology for optimization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid removal from synthetic and drainage water: a comparative study
- Amiri, Mohammad Javad, Bahrami, Mehdi, Beigzadeh, Bahareh, Gil, Antonio
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.34 pp. 34277-34293
- 2,4-D, activated carbon, adsorbents, adsorption, biochar, carbon nanotubes, drainage systems, drainage water, economic analysis, models, pH, response surface methodology, rice hulls, sorption isotherms, temperature, wastewater
- The potential of a granular activated carbon (GAC), a rice husk biochar (BRH), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for removing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from simulated wastewater and drainage water has been evaluated. In this regard, a response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD) (CCD-RSM design) was used to optimize the removal of 2,4-D from simulated wastewater under different operational parameters. The maximum adsorption capacities followed the order GAC > BRH > MWCNTs, whereas the equilibrium time increased in the order MWCNTs < GAC < BRH. In the case of GAC and BRH, the 2,4-D removal percentage increased significantly upon increasing the adsorbent dosage and temperature and decreased upon increasing the initial 2,4-D concentration and pH. The results showed that the contact time and temperature were not important as regards the adsorption efficiency of 2,4-D by MWCNTs, whereas rapid removal of 2,4-D from simulated wastewater was achieved within the first 5 min of contact with the MWCNTs. The results confirmed that the Freundlich isotherm model with the highest coefficient of determination (R²) and the lowest standard error of the estimate (SEE) satisfactorily fitted the 2,4-D experimental data. In addition, successful usage of the three adsorbents investigated was observed for removal of 2,4-D from drainage water from an agricultural drainage system. An economic analysis with a rate of return (ROR) method indicated that BRH could be used as an eco-friendly, low-cost, versatile, and high adsorption capacity alternative to GAC and MWCNTs for the removal of 2,4-D.