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A mini review of fluoride-induced apoptotic pathways

Wei, Qin, Deng, Huidan, Cui, Hengmin, Fang, Jing, Zuo, Zhicai, Deng, Junliang, Li, Yinglun, Wang, Xun, Zhao, Ling
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.34 pp. 33926-33935
apoptosis, blood, bones, bursa of Fabricius, cultured cells, cytotoxicity, endoplasmic reticulum, fluorides, fluorine, immunotoxicity, kidneys, liver, spleen, thymus gland, tonsils
Fluorine or fluoride can have toxic effects on bone tissue and soft tissue at high concentrations. These negative effects include but not limited to cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, blood toxicity, and oxidative damage. Apoptosis plays an important role in fluoride-induced toxicity of kidney, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsil, and cultured cells. Here, apoptosis activated by high level of fluoride has been systematically reviewed, focusing on three pathways: mitochondrion-mediated, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated, and death receptor-mediated pathways. However, very limited reports are focused on the death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathways in the fluoride-induced apoptosis. Therefore, understanding and discovery of more pathways and molecular mechanisms of fluoride-induced apoptosis may contribute to designing measures for preventing fluoride toxicity.