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Evaluation of the protective role of exogenous growth regulators against Ni toxicity in woody shrub Daphne jasminea

Wiszniewska, Alina, Muszyńska, Ewa, Hanus-Fajerska, Ewa, Dziurka, Kinga, Dziurka, Michał
Planta 2018 v.248 no.6 pp. 1365-1381
Daphne, abscisic acid, auxins, biomass, brassinolide, cell walls, chloroplasts, explants, gibberellic acid, growth inhibitors, jasmonic acid, mitosis, nickel, oxidation, plant development, plant response, protective effect, salicylic acid, shoots, toxicity
MAIN CONCLUSION: The results provide a significant verification of the activity of exogenously applied phytohormones: gibberellic acid, jasmonic acid, and brassinolide in the modulation of the plant’s response to nickel treatment. The study investigated nickel accumulation and its toxicity to Daphne jasminea shoots cultured in vitro with or without exogenous supplementation with phytohormones: gibberellic acid (GA3), jasmonic acid (JA), and brassinolide (BL). The aim was to verify the modulatory effect of exogenous plant growth regulators (PGRs) on plant reaction to Ni excess. The combined action of Ni and PGRs was evaluated at the anatomical, ultrastructural, and biochemical levels. Nickel toxicity was manifested in decreased biomass accretion and growth tolerance index (83–53.6%), attributed to enhanced synthesis of growth inhibitors, mainly abscisic acid. As a defence reaction, endogenous gibberellins accumulated. Exogenous GA3 ameliorated the plant reaction to Ni stress, inducing proliferation and growth rate. Ni tolerance in the presence of GA3 was attributed to peroxisomal reactions that stimulated the synthesis of endogenous JA. In contrast, the application of BL caused enhanced Ni accumulation. Plants suffered from pronounced stress due to massive oxidation. The defence strategy of plants subjected to Ni and BL involved cell wall rearrangements. Exogenous JA stimulated the synthesis of active auxins and salicylic acid, contributing to enhanced mitotic activity within explants. However, JA disturbed the integrity of chloroplasts and lamellar compartments. Our study revealed that an action of exogenous PGRs may either enhance tolerance to Ni or increase metal toxicity in D. jasminea. Particularly in in vitro culture, where explants are subjected to external phytohormonal stimuli, the combined effects of supplemental PGRs may enhance stress and substantially affect plant development. Our results provide a significant verification of exogenous PGRs activity in the modulation of plant response to nickel.