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Quick and accurate detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. carthami in host tissue and soil using conventional and real-time PCR assay

Singh, Neeraja, Kapoor, Rupam
World journal of microbiology & biotechnology 2018 v.34 no.12 pp. 175
Carthamus tinctorius, DNA, DNA fragmentation, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium wilt, conidia, crops, diagnostic techniques, disease incidence, fungi, hybridization probes, microsatellite repeats, monitoring, oligodeoxyribonucleotides, pathogens, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, seedlings, soil, soil sampling, India
Safflower wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. carthami (Foc) is a major limiting factor for safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) production worldwide. In India alone, about 40–80% disease incidence has been reported. A rapid, efficient, specific, and sensitive diagnostic technique for Foc is therefore crucial to manage Fusarium wilt of safflower. Twenty-five isolates of F. oxysporum formae speciales infecting other crops, 17 isolates of Fusarium spp. and seven isolates of other fungal pathogens of safflower along with 75 Foc isolates were used for identification of band specific to Foc using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. Out of 70 ISSR primers, the one that specifically amplified a 490 bp fragment from all the Foc isolates was selected. Sequence of the amplified fragment was utilized to design sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (FocScF/FocScR). The primer pair unambiguously and exclusively amplified a DNA fragment of approximately 213 bp in all the 75 Foc isolates. The primer set was able to detect as low as 10 pg of Foc genomic DNA using conventional PCR, while the SCAR primers when coupled with real-time qPCR demonstrated detection limits of 1 pg for Foc genomic DNA and 1000 conidia/g for soil. The assay enabled reliable diagnosis of Foc DNA in contaminated safflower fields and expedited Foc detection at 72 h post inoculation in asymptomatic seedlings. This method facilitates quick and precise detection of Foc in plant and soil samples and can be exploited for timely surveillance and sustainable management of the disease.