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Pros and cons of using genomic SSRs and EST-SSRs for resolving phylogeny of the genus Gossypium

Tabbasam, Nabila, Zafar, Yusuf, Mehboob-ur-Rahman,
Plant systematics and evolution 2014 v.300 no.3 pp. 559-575
DNA, Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium herbaceum, Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium raimondii, alleles, correlation, cotton, crop production, cultivars, data collection, loci, microsatellite repeats, phylogeny, races, random amplified polymorphic DNA technique, tandem repeat sequences
The genus Gossypium is comprised of 50 diverse cotton species representing eight different genomes (A through G and K), however, phylogenetic relationship using various DNA marker types such as RAPD and SSRs was determined on limited number of cotton species. In this report, we have demonstrated the application of genomic SSRs (gSSRs) and EST-SSRs, and after combining both the data sets, for resolving the phylogenies of 36 cotton species including seven races. Out of the 100 primer pairs surveyed (50 for gSSRs and 50 for EST-SSRs), 75 produced scorable amplification products in all species. Out of these, 73 were found to be polymorphic and amplified 135 alleles ranging from 1 to 5 alleles per SSR marker (average 2.87 alleles per marker). The gSSRs amplified higher number of alleles (72) compared to the EST-SSRs (63). In total 22 highly informative SSRs with PIC values ≥0.5 were identified. Genomic SSRs containing di-while EST-SSRs containing tri-nucleotide repeats exhibited high polymorphism compared to the other nucleotide repeats containing gSSRs/EST-SSRs. Number of tandem repeats and polymorphism were positively correlated. Neither the type of chromosome nor the location of the SSRs showed association with the polymorphism. Gossypium herbaceum var. africanum (Watt) Hutch. ex and Ghose and Gossypium robinsonii F. Muell. were found the most genetically diverse, while among races of Gossypium hirsutum L. “yucatanense” and G. hirsutum “punctatum” were found genetically diverse. Of the three data sets, clustering analysis based on EST-SSRs and combined data sets, revealed parallel results reported in earlier studies. This study further confirmed that Gossypium darwinii Watt has close relationship with Gossypium barbadense L. Moreover, Gossypium raimondii Ulbr. and G. herbaceum/Gossypium arboreum L. are close living relatives of the ancestor allotetraploid species. Our studies suggest that for resolving phylogenetic relationship among the various plant species EST-SSRs could be a better choice. This information can be instrumental in transferring novel alleles or loci from the wild species into the cultivated cotton species which would set a stage for cultivating genetically diverse cultivars—a way to achieve sustainable cotton production in changing climate.