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Conversion of Potato Starch and Peel Waste to High Value Nanocrystals
- Raigond, Pinky, Raigond, Baswaraj, Kochhar, Tarvinder, Sood, Ankita, Singh, Brajesh
- Potato research 2018 v.61 no.4 pp. 341-351
- acid hydrolysis, agricultural wastes, alkali treatment, alpha-amylase, biodegradability, biopolymers, cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, humans, nanocomposites, nanocrystals, nanoparticles, potato peels, potato starch, starch granules
- The present study aimed to convert starch and potato peel waste to nanocrystals. Starch nanocrystals were prepared using two methodologies: direct acid hydrolysis and enzyme pretreatment followed by acid hydrolysis. Direct hydrolysis broke down the starch granules to nanocrystals in 12 days. Enzyme pretreatment with starch hydrolytic enzymes (α-amylase and amyloglucosidase) reduced the time for preparation of starch nanocrystals by 6 days. Starch nanocrystals of optimum size were obtained with both the treatments and the resultant size ranged from 10 to 50 nm. Nanocrystals were disk-like platelets in appearance. Cellulose nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel. Cellulose was isolated from peel waste with alkali treatment. Further, cellulose nanocrystals from potato peel and cellulose microcrystalline were prepared by acid hydrolysis. Microscopic images revealed that the aqueous suspension of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel were single rod shaped, whereas those derived from cellulose microcrystalline were rod-like nanoparticles, agglomerated in the form of bundles including some of the rods in single units (well separated). The size of potato peel nanocrystals ranged from 40 to 100 nm (length) and cellulose microcrystalline ranged from 4 to 20 nm (diameter) by 110 to 250, given 4 to 20 nm (length), respectively. As starch nanocrystals as well as cellulose nanocrystals are derived from biopolymer, both can be considered safe for humans and the environment. Moreover, the biodegradable nature of these nanocrystals makes them superior over metallic nanoparticles, particularly in the field of nanocomposites.