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Anther culture in rice proportionally rescues microspores according to gametophytic gene effect and enhances genetic study of hybrid sterility

Kanaoka, Yoshitaka, Kuniyoshi, Daichi, Inada, Eri, Koide, Yohei, Okamoto, Yoshihiro, Yasui, Hideshi, Kishima, Yuji
Plant methods 2018 v.14 no.1 pp. 102
Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, anther culture, callus, gametophytes, genes, heterozygosity, hybrids, immatures, interspecific hybridization, loci, males, microspores, pollen, rice, segregation distortion, substitution lines
BACKGROUND: To investigate plant hybrid sterility, we studied interspecific hybrids of two cultivated rice species, Asian rice (Oryza sativa) and African rice (O. glaberrima). Male gametes of these hybrids display complete sterility owing to a dozen of hybrid sterility loci, termed HS loci, but this complicated genetic system remains poorly understood. RESULTS: Microspores from these interspecific hybrids form sterile pollen but are viable at the immature stage. Application of the anther culture (AC) method caused these immature microspores to induce callus. The segregation distortion of 11 among 13 known HS loci was assessed in the callus population. Using many individual calli, fine mapping of the HS loci was attempted based on heterozygotes produced from chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs). Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) from microspores was detected at 6 of 11 HS loci in the callus population. The fine mapping of S₁ and S₁₉ loci using CSSLs revealed precise distances of markers from the positions of HS loci exhibiting excessive TRD. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that AC to generate callus populations derived from immature microspores is a useful methodology for genetic study. The callus population facilitated detection of TRD at multiple HS loci and dramatically shortened the process for mapping hybrid sterility genes.