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ACA12 is a deregulated isoform of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase of Arabidopsis thaliana

Limonta, Margherita, Romanowsky, Shawn, Olivari, Claudio, Bonza, Maria Cristina, Luoni, Laura, Rosenberg, Alexa, Harper, Jeffrey F., De Michelis, Maria Ida
Plant molecular biology 2014 v.84 no.4-5 pp. 387-397
Arabidopsis thaliana, Ca2-transporting ATPase, calcium, chromatography, gene expression, genes, messenger RNA, models, mutants, phenotype, plasma membrane, sequence homology, yeasts
Plant auto-inhibited Ca²⁺-ATPases (ACA) are crucial in defining the shape of calcium transients and therefore in eliciting plant responses to various stimuli. Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes ten ACA isoforms that can be divided into four clusters based on gene structure and sequence homology. While isoforms from clusters 1, 2 and 4 have been characterized, virtually nothing is known about members of cluster 3 (ACA12 and ACA13). Here we show that a GFP-tagged ACA12 localizes at the plasma membrane and that expression of ACA12 rescues the phenotype of partial male sterility of a null mutant of the plasma membrane isoform ACA9, thus providing genetic evidence that ACA12 is a functional plasma membrane-resident Ca²⁺-ATPase. By ACA12 expression in yeast and purification by CaM-affinity chromatography, we show that, unlike other ACAs, the activity of ACA12 is not stimulated by CaM. Moreover, full length ACA12 is able to rescue a yeast mutant deficient in calcium pumps. Analysis of single point ACA12 mutants suggests that ACA12 loss of auto-inhibition can be ascribed to the lack of two acidic residues—highly conserved in other ACA isoforms—localized at the cytoplasmic edge of the second and third transmembrane segments. Together, these results support a model in which the calcium pump activity of ACA12 is primarily regulated by increasing or decreasing mRNA expression and/or protein translation and degradation.