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Daily supplementation with 15 μg vitamin D₂ compared with vitamin D₃ to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: a 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial
- Tripkovic, Laura, Wilson, Louise R, Hart, Kathryn, Johnsen, Sig, de Lusignan, Simon, Smith, Colin P, Bucca, Giselda, Penson, Simon, Chope, Gemma, Elliott, Ruan, Hyppönen, Elina, Berry, Jacqueline L, Lanham-New, Susan A
- TheAmerican journal of clinical nutrition 2017 v.106 no.2 pp. 481-490
- blood serum, cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, food fortification, juices, liquid chromatography, nationalities and ethnic groups, placebos, public health, randomized clinical trials, tandem mass spectrometry, vitamin status, winter, women, United Kingdom
- Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether vitamin D₂ and vitamin D₃ are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of vitamin D. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D₂ or vitamin D₃ fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20–64 y (n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D₂, biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D₂, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D₃, or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D₃ daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study. Results: Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the vitamin D₃ biscuit and the vitamin D₃ juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the vitamin D₂ biscuit group [Δ (95% CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) (P < 0.0003) and 16.0 nmol/L (8.0, 23.9 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001)], the vitamin D₂ juice group [Δ (95% CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001) and 16.9 nmol/L (9.0, 24.8 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001)], and the placebo group [Δ (95% CI): 42.3 nmol/L (34.4, 50.2 nmol/L) (P < 0.0001) and 42.9 nmol/L (35.0, 50.8 nmol/L) (P < 0.0002)]. Conclusions: With the use of a daily dose of vitamin D relevant to public health recommendations (15 μg) and in vehicles relevant to food-fortification strategies, vitamin D₃ was more effective than vitamin D₂ in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D₃ may therefore be a preferential form to optimize vitamin D status within the general population. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN23421591.