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LESA MS Imaging of Heat-Preserved and Frozen Tissue: Benefits of Multistep Static FAIMS
- Griffiths, Rian L., Simmonds, Anna L., Swales, John G., Goodwin, Richard J. A., Cooper, Helen J.
- Analytical chemistry 2018 v.90 no.22 pp. 13306-13314
- brain, drugs, heat, heat treatment, hemoglobin, image analysis, ions, kidneys, lipids, liquids, liver, mass spectrometry, protein content, rats, testes, tissues, washing
- We have previously demonstrated liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) mass spectrometry imaging of proteins in thin tissue sections of brain and liver. Here, we present an improved approach that makes use of multiple static FAIMS parameters at each sampled location and allows a significant improvement in the number of proteins, lipids, and drugs that can be imaged simultaneously. The approach is applied to the mass spectrometry imaging of control and cassette-dosed rat kidneys. Mass spectrometry imaging of kidneys typically requires washing to remove excess hemoglobin; however, that is not necessary with this approach. Multistep static FAIMS mass spectrometry resulted in a 6- to 16-fold increase in the number of proteins detected in the absence of FAIMS, in addition to smaller increases over single step static FAIMS (chosen for optimum transmission of total protein ions). The benefits of multistep static FAIMS mass spectrometry for protein detection are also shown for sections of testes. The numbers of proteins detected following multistep FAIMS increased between 2- and 3-fold over single step FAIMS and between 2- and 14-fold over LESA alone. Finally, to date, LESA mass spectrometry of proteins in tissue has been undertaken solely on fresh frozen samples. In this work, we demonstrate that heat-preserved tissues are also suitable for these analyses. Heat preservation of tissue improved the number of proteins detected by LESA MS for both kidney and testes tissue (by between 2- and 4-fold). For both tissue types, the majority of the proteins additionally detected in the heat-treated samples were subsequently detected in the frozen samples when FAIMS was incorporated. Improvements in the numbers of proteins detected were observed for LESA FAIMS MS for the kidney tissue; for testes tissue, fewer total proteins were detected following heat preservation; however, approximately one-third were unique to the heat-preserved samples.