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Chlorination of Source Water Containing Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media: Mutagenicity and Identification of New Iodinated Disinfection Byproducts
- Postigo, Cristina, DeMarini, David M., Armstrong, Mikayla D., Liberatore, Hannah K., Lamann, Karsten, Kimura, Susana Y., Cuthbertson, Amy A., Warren, Sarah H., Richardson, Susan D., McDonald, Tony, Sey, Yusupha M., Ackerson, Nana Osei B., Duirk, Stephen E., Simmons, Jane Ellen
- Environmental science & technology 2018 v.52 no.22 pp. 13047-13056
- Salmonella, X-radiation, byproducts, chlorination, cytotoxicity, disinfection, drinking water, image analysis, iodine, mammals, methyl iodide, mutagenicity, mutagens, tissues, wastewater treatment
- Iodinated contrast media (ICM) are nonmutagenic agents administered for X-ray imaging of soft tissues. ICM can reach μg/L levels in surface waters because they are administered in high doses, excreted largely unmetabolized, and poorly removed by wastewater treatment. Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) are highly genotoxic and have been reported in disinfected waters containing ICM. We assessed the mutagenicity in Salmonella of extracts of chlorinated source water containing one of four ICM (iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, and diatrizoate). We quantified 21 regulated and nonregulated DBPs and 11 target I-DBPs and conducted a nontarget, comprehensive broad-screen identification of I-DBPs. We detected one new iodomethane (trichloroiodomethane), three new iodoacids (dichloroiodoacetic acid, chlorodiiodoacetic acid, bromochloroiodoacetic acid), and two new nitrogenous I-DBPs (iodoacetonitrile and chloroiodoacetonitrile). Their formation depended on the presence of iopamidol as the iodine source; identities were confirmed with authentic standards when available. This is the first identification in simulated drinking water of chloroiodoacetonitrile and iodoacetonitrile, the latter of which is highly cytotoxic and genotoxic in mammalian cells. Iopamidol (5 μM) altered the concentrations and relative distribution of several DBP classes, increasing total haloacetonitriles by >10-fold. Chlorination of ICM-containing source water increased I-DBP concentrations but not mutagenicity, indicating that such I-DBPs were either not mutagenic or at concentrations too low to affect mutagenicity.