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Acute heat stress induces changes in physiological and cellular responses in Saanen goats

Hooper, Henrique Barbosa, dos Santos Silva, Priscila, de Oliveira, Sandra Aparecida, Merighe, Giovana Krempel Fonseca, Negrão, João Alberto
International journal of biometeorology 2018 v.62 no.12 pp. 2257-2265
Saanen, apoptosis, bioclimatology, cortisol, genes, goats, heat shock proteins, heat stress, humidity, leukocytes, physiological response, pro-apoptotic proteins, respiratory rate, solar radiation, temperature, triiodothyronine
The relationships between rectal temperatures and physiological and cellular responses to heat stress can improve the productivity of Saanen goats in tropical environments. In this context, this study evaluated the physiological responses and gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSP60, 70, and 90) and genes related to apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, and p53) of Saanen goats subjected to acute heat stress. Ten health Saanen goats were exposed to solar radiation during 3 consecutive days. The expression of HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 genes in blood leukocytes, rectal and superficial temperatures, respiratory frequency, cortisol, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine was measured at 06:00, 13:00, and 18:00 h. In vitro, blood leukocytes were subjected to 38 °C and 40 °C for 3 h to measure the expression of the same target genes. The temperature humidity index, measured from 12:00 to 15:00, was greater than 80 and black globe temperatures were greater at 40 °C, indicating the intensity of the solar radiation. Although the solar radiation caused acute heat stress, increased cortisol release, and the expression of HSP60 and 70 in dry Saanen goats, the increased respiratory frequency and decreased T4 and T3 restored the homeothermy of the experimental goats. In vitro, the 40 °C increased the expression of p53 (pro-apoptotic protein), Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein), HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90, suggesting that these genes have protective functions. However, further studies are necessary to understand the physiological and cellular responses to heat stress.