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Simplified method for calculating inflow into a deep excavation with consideration of the effects of cutoff walls

Luo, G. Y., Qiu, J. S., Cao, H., Pan, H.
Hydrogeology journal 2018 v.26 no.8 pp. 2853-2865
aquifers, environmental impact, models, soil
Water inflow into deep excavations is a key parameter in the evaluation of environmental impact, and a simplified method is needed to calculate the inflow with adequate accuracy, especially for a deep excavation with a cutoff wall around it. This paper presents a model for calculating inflow based on the method of fragments, assuming two-dimensional sectional flow. The effects of cutoff wall thickness (w), wall penetration, and excavation width on the inflow are well considered in this model. Explicit formulas for the form factor are given. The accuracy and scope of this method are discussed. The method can be applied in both flooding and no flooding cases. Extensive verification shows that, for the flooding case and when one of four conditions is satisfied, the error of the proposed method will be within 10%. These conditions are b/d ≥ 0.8 or w/d ≥ 0.03 or s/d ≥ 0.2 or s₁/d ≥ 0.2, for which b is the half width of the excavation, d is the thickness of the soil layer underlying the wall, and s and s₁ are the wall penetration depths on the non-excavation side and excavation side, respectively. For the case of no flooding and when the ratio of the distance from the recharge boundary to the aquifer thickness (a/T) is ≥2, the error does not exceed 15%.