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Phytoremediation of heavy metals: mechanisms, methods and enhancements
- Muthusaravanan, S., Sivarajasekar, N., Vivek, J. S., Paramasivan, T., Naushad, Mu., Prakashmaran, J., Gayathri, V., Al-Duaij, Omar K.
- Environmental chemistry letters 2018 v.16 no.4 pp. 1339-1359
- effluents, heavy metals, humans, industry, nutrients, phytoaccumulation, polluted soils
- Polluted soil and water impact the quality of food and nutrients of human and animal biota. Soil and water are mainly polluted by effluent discharges from industries, which are broadly classified into metallic and nonmetallic pollutant-bearing effluents. In order to tackle this problem, a plant-based technology called phytoremediation is used to clean contaminated lands. Phytoremediation is based upon several processes such as phytodegradation, phytovolatilization, phytoaccumulation and phytoextraction. These methods are efficient, eco-friendly and economic. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms involved in phytoremediation of heavy metals, and enhancement processes.